We must remember not to kill the messenger who may have the better rationale and informed theory for public policy and functions of government, with the spirit of our enlightened ideas behind the thought.
[p.s. history is our public mind to understand future decisions that try and help all of us.]
- Know the effects of industrialization on living and working conditions, including the portrayal of working conditions and food safety in Upton Sinclair's The Jungle.
- Describe the changing landscape, including the growth of cities linked by industry and trade, and the development of cities divided according to race, ethnicity, and class.
- Trace the effect of the Americanization movement.
- Analyze the effect of urban political machines and responses to them by immigrants and middle-class reformers.
- Discuss corporate mergers that produced trusts and cartels and the economic and political policies of industrial leaders.
- Trace the economic development of the United States and its emergence as a major industrial power, including its gains from trade and the advantages of its physical geography.
- Analyze the similarities and differences between the ideologies of Social Darwinism and Social Gospel (e.g., using biographies of William Graham Sumner, Billy Sunday, Dwight L. Moody).
- Examine the effect of political programs and activities of Populists.
- Understand the effect of political programs and activities of the Progressives (e.g., federal regulation of railroad transport, Children's Bureau, the Sixteenth Amendment, Theodore Roosevelt, Hiram Johnson).
- Describe the contributions of various religious groups to American civic principles and social reform movements (e.g., civil and human rights, individual responsibility and the work ethic, antimonarchy and self-rule, worker protection, family-centered communities).
- Analyze the great religious revivals and the leaders involved in them, including the First Great Awakening, the Second Great Awakening, the Civil War revivals, the Social Gospel Movement, the rise of Christian liberal theology in the nineteenth century, the impact of the Second Vatican Council, and the rise of Christian fundamentalism in current times.
- Cite incidences of religious intolerance in the United States (e.g., persecution of Mormons, anti-Catholic sentiment, anti-Semitism).
- Discuss the expanding religious pluralism in the United States and California that resulted from large-scale immigration in the twentieth century.
- Describe the principles of religious liberty found in the Establishment and Free Exercise clauses of the First Amendment, including the debate on the issue of separation of church and state.